In his letter to U.S. House speaker Nancy Pelosi, in which he signaled his „intention to end trade benefits,” Trump said he was determined that New Delhi had „not assured” the U.S. that it would provide „fair and appropriate access” to Indian markets. Since the beginning of the 20th century, several hundred bilateral ATAs have been signed. The TREND project of the Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy lists approximately 700 trade agreements, the vast majority of which are bilateral.  The Preferential Trade Agreement (FSP) or Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) is a special status granted in trade by different countries. In the United States, it aims to promote economic growth in the developing country, and the agreement provides for the duty-free importation of 4,800 products from 129 designated beneficiary countries and territories. GSP was founded on 1. It was introduced in January 1976 by the Trade Act of 1974, the U.S. government mentioned. However, the Indian government believes that the plan has spread since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994. A preferential trade area (also known as a preferential trade agreement, ATP) is a trading bloc that grants preferential access to certain products of participating countries. This is done by lowering tariffs, but not by abolishing them completely.
A PTA can be set by a trade pact. This is the first step in economic integration. The boundary between a PTA and a free trade area (FTA) can become blurred, as almost all PTAs have the primary objective of becoming a free trade agreement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. These agreements grant signatory states special or preferential access to each other`s markets and give a boost to overall trade. In the United States, the GSP programme to promote economic growth in beneficiary developing countries provides for the duty-free importation of up to 4,800 products from 129 designated beneficiary countries and territories. The move is the Trump administration`s latest move to reduce U.S. trade deficits and offset what it sees as unfair trade relations with other countries, starting with China. In addition, Trump has repeatedly called on India to impose high tariffs. In April 2018, the US launched a fitness check of India`s compliance with the GSP market access criterion.
India was the largest beneficiary of the program in 2017, with $5.6 billion in exports to the United States gaining duty-free status, according to a January report by the Congressional Research Service. According to the Washington Post, while the United States remains India`s top export partner, receiving more than $48 billion in goods from the country in 2017, just over 10 percent of imports from India benefit from the program, which is set to expire in December 2020. Turkey, the other new target of Trump`s trade wars, was the fifth-largest beneficiary, with $1.7 billion in imports covered. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, in which he expressed his „intention to end trade benefits,” said Trump was determined that New Delhi had „not guaranteed the United States” that it would provide „fair and equitable access” to Indian markets. A customs union (CU) is a free trade agreement in which members apply a common external customs plan (ETC) to imports from non-members. Bilateral trade between India and the United States totaled $74.5 billion in 2017-18, an increase of 15.5% over the previous year. However, the numbers are skewed in favor of India. For example, India imported $26.3 billion worth of items in fiscal year 2019 (April-December), but recorded a total export of $38.8 billion.
A preferential trade area (including preferential trade agreements, PTNs) is a trading bloc that offers preferential access to certain products of participating countries. This requires a reduction in tariffs, but not their complete elimination. An PTA can be implemented through a trade pact. This is the first step towards economic integration. The boundary between an EPZ and a free trade area (EEA) can be blurred, as almost all IDPs have the primary objective of becoming a free trade agreement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. .